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Lark II YMS -76 - Historia

Lark II YMS -76 - Historia



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Lärka II
(YMS - 76: dp. 270; 1. 136 '; b. 25', dr. 8 '; s. 15 k. Cpl.
32; a.13 ", 220mm., 2dct., 1dcp.)

YMS ~ 76 fastställdes av Greenport Basin and Construction Co., Greenport, Long Island, NY, 5 januari 1943; lanserades 13 mars 1943; och beställd i New York City den 10 augusti 1943, Lt. (jg) J. O. Wilson i kommando.

Under återstoden av 1943 och hela 1944 opererade YMS-876 främst i New York där hon sopade inflygningarna och räckvidden till New Yorks hamn. I nddition deltog hon i periodiska ASW -operationer vid kusten som skickade henne längs den östra kusten från New Jersey till Virginia och in i Chesapeake Bay.

Tilldelad tjänst i Stilla havet tidigt 1945, YMS ~ 76 lämnade New York 16 mars 1945 och anlände San Diego en månad senare. Hon rensade västkusten 28 april; och, efter att ha rört vid Pearl Harbor, Johnston Island och Eniwetok, nådde Guam 24 maj. Hon tjänstgjorde i Marianas fram till den 26 juni då hon som enhet i MinRon 104 anlände till Okinawa för att ta del av den viktiga men farliga uppgiften att sopa japanska gruvor från de omgivande vattnen. Hon stannade kvar i Okinawa och ägnade sig åt denna livsviktiga plikt under resten av kriget.

Efter den formella kapitulationen av Japan den 2 september,
YMS76 ångade till Japan 8 till 10 september och började sopa efter kustminor från 'Sasebo. Under de närmaste fem månaderna rensade hon gruvor från 'Honshu och Rynabus kuster och i Inlandshavet. Den 18 februari 19 "avgick hon från Robe till USA. Genom räddning via Marshall- och Hawaiiöarna rörde hon San Francisco 1 april och nådde San Diego den 9. YMS376 togs ut där 6 juni 1946 och gick in i Pacific Reserve Fleet. I reserv i San Diego fick hon namnet Lark och omklassificerade AMS-23 den 17 februari 1947.

Efter utbrottet av den kommunistiska väpnade aggressionen mot republiken 'Sydkorea sommaren' 1950 tog Lark i drift igen i Alameda, Kalifornien, 8 november 1950, löjtnant (jg.) E. W. Anderson i kommando. Tilldelad till MinRon 5, anlände hon till San Diego 26 november och började träna i gruvor, .ASW och Naval Reserve. Hon bytte hemort till Long Beach 11 januari 1951, och under nästa och ett och ett halvt år fortsatte hon att arbeta med typ och beredskap längs Kaliforniens kust från Long Beach till San Francisco.

Lark avgick från Long Beach 6 juli 1952 och, efter att ha rört vid San Francisco, anlände Astoria, Oreg., 29 juli. Hon tjänstgjorde där fram till 13 november 1953 när hon tog ur drift och gick in i Pacific Reserve Fleet. Hon omklassificerades MSC (0) -23 den 7 februari 1955. Hon överfördes till Japan den 14 februari 1955 under programmet för militärt bistånd och tjänstgjorde den japanska sjöfartsstyrkan som Ninoshima (MSC262) tills den drabbades 1967

YMS 376 fick tre stridsstjärnor för andra världskrigets tjänst.


Den första kvinnan som gick igenom Appalachian Trail Alone gjorde det som en ‘Lark ’

Mount Katahdin

Maine

Denna berättelse är utdrag och anpassad från Appalachian Trail: En biografi av Philip D ’Anieri, publicerad i juni 2021 av Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Den 4 april 1948 gick arméveteranen Earl Shaffer ut från södra änden av Appalachian Trail (AT) för att, som han berömd sa, “ gå ut kriget ur mitt system. ” När han slutade vid den norra änden , Maine ’s Mt. Katahdin, 124 dagar senare, blev Shaffer den första personen som har känt genom att vandra den 2 000 mil långa leden som ormar sig uppför den bergiga ryggraden i östra USA. Mindre än ett decennium senare snörde en 67-årig mormor inte vandringsskor utan sneakers och blev den första kvinnan som vandrade leden på egen hand*. Medan Shaffers resa för att hitta inlösen på leden är mer känd, är Emma Gatewoods vandring lika övertygande: Efter en livstid av fruktansvärda svårigheter lockades hon helt enkelt av friheten för en lång promenad.

Mount Katahdin, med en höjd av 5,267 fot, markerar den norra änden av Appalachian Trail. Shawn Patrick Ouellette/Portland Press Herald/Getty Images

Gatewood, till skillnad från de flesta vandrare på Appalachian Trail, var faktiskt från Appalachia, den södra höglandet regionen som definieras av både dess branta terräng och distinkta sociala ekonomi. Hon växte upp bland Allegheny -foten i det sydöstra Ohio, och hennes vardagliga miljö hade mycket mer gemensamt med West Virginia, tvärs över Ohio River, än med jordbruksmarkerna och industristäderna i resten av hennes hemstat.

Hon föddes Emma Caldwell i Gallia County 1887, den 12: e av 15 barn, och växte upp på en följd av gårdar när hennes familj flyttade upprepade gånger på jakt efter bättre möjligheter. För Caldwells och de tusentals människor som skrapade upp sig i kullarna, till skillnad från sina motsvarigheter i städer, var utomhus en arbetsplats för att klara av en försörjning, inte en bit av landskap att beundra och utforska. Som 18-åring tjänade hon 75 cent i veckan som inhemsk hjälp när hon träffade P.C. Gatewood. De två gifte sig våren 1907. Nästan från dag ett av deras äktenskap, enligt hennes ättling och biograf, Ben Montgomery, såg Emma Gatewoods make henne som en besittning och våld som hans kontrollmedel. Efter att han slog henne för första gången, enligt Montgomery:

Hon tänkte lämna honom den dagen och den natten och vidare till nästa, men vart skulle hon ta vägen? Hon hade inget betalande jobb, inga besparingar och hennes utbildning hade slutat i åttonde klass. Hon kunde inte återvända hem och utgöra en börda för sin mamma, som förblev upptagen med att uppfostra barn. Så hon bet på tungan och stannade hos P.C.

Att överleva sin man och försörja sin stadigt växande familj skulle definiera Gatewoods äktenskapsliv under de kommande tre decennierna. Hon uppfostrade 11 barn, drev hushållet och utförde hemskt arbetskraft. Genom allt gjorde hon vad hon kunde för att skydda sig själv och sina barn från sin man. Hon försvarade sig, hon kämpade tillbaka och hon flydde ibland till skogen, där tanken på tillflykt bland träden inte var någon litterär anspelning, utan en alltför verklig fråga om liv och död. Det fanns också glada stunder. Barnen kom ihåg att deras mamma tyckte särskilt om att ta dem på långa promenader.

Gatewood nära Lonesome Lake i New Hampshire 1957, under hennes andra genomvandring av Appalachian Trail. Peter Brandt / Appalachian Mountain Club

PC Gatewood dömdes för dråp efter att han dödade en man 1924. Han fick villkorlig dom på grund av domstolens uppfattning att han behövde kunna försörja sin fru och sina barn, men den återbetalning som han fick betala krävdes sålde ut halva gården och började en stadig cykel av försämrade ekonomiska förmögenheter för familjen.

Hans våld mot Emma var konstant. År 1937 lämnade hon sina yngre barn i omsorg av sina vuxna syskon och flydde till Kalifornien, där hennes mamma och två av hennes syskon bodde. Hon korresponderade med sina barn i brev som inte hade någon returadress, och var noggrant skrivna för att förhindra att P.C bestämmer var hon befinner sig. I slutändan återvände hon hem av skyldighet gentemot barnen, i vetskap om att det gjorde henne igen skadlig.

Inte långt efter flyttade P. C. med Emma och de tre yngsta barnen i åldrarna 11 till 15 år till en liten gård vid floden West Virginia. År 1939 lyckades han få Emma gripen efter ett slagsmål mellan dem två som gjorde henne hårt misshandlad. Men händelsen visade sig vara början på slutet för Gatewoods ’ äktenskap och P.C. ’s närvaro i Emma ’s liv. I början av 1941, efter mer än 30 års äktenskap, säkrade Emma Gatewood en skilsmässa. Nu i början av 50 -talet skulle hon börja bygga ett nytt liv på sina egna villkor. Dessa villkor skulle så småningom inkludera att gå flera mycket långa promenader.

I slutet av andra världskriget hade Emma flyttat tillbaka till Ohio. Fritt att skapa ett liv på sina egna villkor, spenderade hon de närmaste åren på att flytta till olika jobb och arrangemang, ta hand om sjuka släktingar och arbeta inom vården. Någon gång stötte hon på en artikel från 1949 i nationella geografiska om Appalachian Trail. Den nämnde att en ung man från Pennsylvania, Earl Shaffer, hade blivit den första som vandrade hela leden på en enda resa.

År 1954, Gatewood, då 66 och visste tydligen ingenting mer om leden än vad som hade dykt upp i nationella geografiska, tog sitt eget beslut att vandra hela AT. Hon skulle aldrig ge ett entydigt svar på varför hon drogs till en vandring, utöver det faktum att spåret lät attraktivt för henne, och hon uppskattade att ha friheten att göra som hon ville. De nationella geografiska artikel hade organiserat sin översikt från norr till söder, och i juli anlände Gatewood till Baxter State Park i Maine för att börja sin vandring. Även om hennes första dag på spåret var en framgång, fick hon snabbt problem. Bara på sin andra hela vandringsdag lämnade hon oavsiktligt leden, en av de farligaste situationerna för AT -vandrare. I den djupa skogen i Maine kan det vara helt osynligt när det är bara en bit bort från ett spår, då blir havet av omgivande träd enhetligt och riktningsfritt och desorientering tar snabbt fart. Efter två nätter i vildmarken och bryter henne glasögon lyckades Gatewood på något sätt återupptäcka spåret och återvända till där hon började. Med den starka uppmuntran från parkvakter, inklusive en tur till närmaste tågstation vid parkens överintendent, avbröt Gatewood sin vandring och återvände till Ohio.

En blå markör pekar väg för vandrare genom utmanande terräng nära Appalachian Trail ’s norra ändplats, vid Maine ’s Mount Katahdin. Shawn Patrick Ouellette/Portland Press Herald/Getty Images

Nästa vår försökte hon igen, den här gången på väg norrut från Georgien. Som hon hade föregående år berättade Gatewood för ingen, inklusive hennes egen familj, vad hon höll på med. Hon ville inte att de skulle oroa sig eller försöka avskräcka henne.

Från början gjorde Gatewood liten skillnad mellan leden hon vandrade på och det större territorium hon gick igenom. Hon sökte mat och skydd från omvärlden, oavsett om det var att plocka bär på leden eller be att få övernatta på gårdar i närheten. I stället för att klä sig i speciella kläder, bar hon sneakers och slängde sina få saker i en duffel över axeln. Gatewood hade tillbringat nästan hela sitt liv i ett fungerande appalachiskt landskap, kommit runt till fots och nöjde sig med det som fanns till hands. Hennes vandring på AT skulle spela ut som en förlängning av det livet, en njutning av något som hon tyckte om, snarare än en självmedveten expedition till naturen.

Hennes första natt förlorade hon spåret men kom på ett hus vars ägare lät henne övernatta, och hon vandrade tillbaka på morgonen. Den andra natten använde hon en övergiven hydda nära leden för skydd. Senare i Georgien övernattade hon i en kyrka. En annan natt fick hon veta av en man att hon inte kunde stanna på hans fastighet, eftersom hon hörde till sin familj och inte ut och vandrade på egen hand.

Dag ut och dag in förlitade hon sig på sitt eget mod och vett för att klara sig och på andras generositet. Som det var fallet med Shaffer började ordet från Gatewoods passage över leden börja föregå henne, och lokala journalister kom ikapp henne för att skriva berättelser. En reporter intresserade sig särskilt mycket. När Gatewood närmade sig Bear Mountain i New York, Mary Snow, som täckte kvinnors sport för Sports Illustrated, ordnade att vandra tillsammans med henne i cirka fem mil, köpte hennes middag och betalade för en stuga.

Till skillnad från mycket av den andra täckningen, som framställde Gatewood som en excentrisk, fokuserade Snow ’s historia, en kort artikel på baksidan, på allvaret i utmaningen hon hade tagit sig an:

Mrs Gatewood, ensam och utan karta, började följa spårets vita brännmärken i början av maj, och i veckan från Connecticut's Cathedral Pines kunde mormor Gatewood se tillbaka på 1500 mil av det bästa och värsta i naturen. Hon hade noggrant undvikit att störa tre kopparhuvuden och två skallerormar på leden, vända åt sidan en angripande skramlare med en käpp. När hon fångades utan skydd i närheten hade hon värmt några stenar och sovit på dem för att inte frysa. Till mellanmål nappade mormor vilda huckleberries, använde sorrel till sallad och sugade buljongtärningar för att bekämpa förlust av kroppssalt.

Ikoniska Appalachian Trail -landskap inkluderar utsikten från New Hampshire ’s Crawford Path, som visas här cirka 1965. Courtesy Appalachian Mountain Club

När Gatewood kom till Baxter State Park möttes hon av både Snow och kvinnan som hade rapporterat om avslutningen av Shaffers vandring sju år tidigare, fru Dean Chase. (Chase var känd, som många kvinnor vid den tiden, av hennes mans namn. Snow ’s artiklar om Gatewood gick utan en byline.) De två kvinnorna skulle följa Gatewood fram och tillbaka under de närmaste dagarna, men hon klättrade Katahdin ensam, för andra gången på drygt ett år, för att slutföra sin vandring på morgonen den 25 september 1955.

På frågan varför hon tog resan svarade Gatewood, “För att jag ville, ” och på grund av de lockande saker hon hade läst om Appalachian Trail. Verkligheten var en besvikelse. Artikeln berättade om den vackra leden, hur bra den var markerad, att den rensades och att det fanns skyddsrum i slutet av en bra dags vandring, ” sa hon. Jag trodde att det skulle vara en trevlig lärka. Det var inte ’t. ”

Trots hennes besvikelse och att hon kom tillbaka till sitt Ohio-liv, på våren 1957, flög Gatewood till Georgien igen och gick genom AT för andra gången på tre år och slutade några veckor före hennes 70-årsdag. År 1959 gick hon längs vägar som följde den gamla Oregon Trail, från Independence, Missouri, till Portland, Oregon, hennes framsteg spårades i tidningar och förkrossningen av åskådare nära slutet lämnade henne så frustrerad att hon slog en fotograf med sitt paraply. År 1964, vid 77, avslutade hon en sektionsvandring av AT, den sista av en serie separata sådana resor under åren, vilket markerade tredje gången hon gick hela Appalachian Trail.

I början av 70 -talet gick Gatewood längs vägar som följde den historiska Oregon Trail, från Missouri till Pacific Northwest. Denver Post / Getty Images

Under denna period var AT-vandrare sällsynta. Det var först i slutet av 1960-talet och accelererande på 821770-talet som vandringens popularitet ökade till den grad att hundratals blivande vandrare begav sig ut från Georgia ’s Springer Mountain varje vår.

Earl Shaffers vandring 1948 kom att tjäna som ursprungshistoria för en genomvandringskultur som spelade en större och större roll i själva AT: s liv, skildrad som en vildmarksupplevelse där ryggsäckskunskaper och know-how gav inträde till ett separat, högre naturområde. Men Gatewood visade att AT skulle kunna vandras i samklang med byggnadens värld och människor som genomsyrade det, inte nödvändigtvis i motsats till dem, och att det var en scen inte bara för en ung mans hjältemod utan för det vardagliga att få -av en gammal dam. Ja, det kan vara föremålet för en årslång strävan att återskapa sig själv. Men det kan också vara “a lärka, ” tas upp på förslag om inget större än ett slumpmässigt möte med en tidningsartikel.

Gatewood fortsatte att vandra och resa till slutet av sitt liv. Från och med 1967 ledde hon en årlig vintervandring längs ett spår, nu uppkallat efter henne, i Ohio ’s Hocking Hills. Vandringen drog 2 500 deltagare 1973, inte långt efter som Gatewood inledde en bussresa runt i USA och delar av Kanada. Inom några dagar efter hemkomsten blev hon allvarligt sjuk och hennes tillstånd försämrades snabbt. Emma Gatewood dog i juni 1973, 85 år gammal.

*Korrektion: Detta utdrag klargjorde tidigare inte Emma Gatewood var den första kvinnan som ensam vandrade genom Appalachian Trail. År 1952 avslutade Mildred Norman och en manlig vandringspartner en “flip-flop, ” vandringsdel av hela leden i en riktning, för att sedan resa till andra änden och vandra resten i motsatt riktning.


DEL II (b)Amfibisk utbildning av markstyrkor av sjunde amfibiska styrkan

Introduktion

Den amfibiska utbildningen av arméns trupper tilldelades som marinansvar genom åtgärder från de gemensamma stabscheferna. I överensstämmelse med detta utfärdade huvudkvarteret i Southwest Pacific Area den 8 februari 1943 ett direktiv som belastade Southwest Pacific Amphibious Force med att genomföra och samordna all amfibieutbildning, utom utbildning för närliggande, land-till-strand -verksamheten hos ingenjörens specialbrigader. Det kommer att noteras att endast i denna funktion, för amfibisk utbildning av arméns trupper, skulle kontreadmiral BARBEY vara direkt ansvarig gentemot huvudkontoret och inte genom befälhavaren Southwest Pacific Force som han var i alla andra frågor.

All amfibisk träningsverksamhet som då fungerade lades under hans kommando. Dessa var:

(a) Joint Overseas Operational Training School i Port Stephens, New South Wales. Denna aktivitet hade drivits direkt under huvudkontoret och deltog i ett program för grundläggande amfibieutbildning för officerare i USA och australiensiska arméer. En australiensisk infanteribataljon med ett batteri artilleri fungerade som skoltrupper och gav landningsdemonstrationer på bataljonens landningsteams skala. En marin avancerad basenhet bestående av 3 officerare och 40 värvade män med 40 landningsbåtar av 36 'LCP -typen var ansluten till denna skola. Denna avancerade basenhet var också engagerad i att instruera Royal Australian Navy -personal i driften av den amerikanska typen av landningsbåtar.

(b) I Toorbul, Queensland, deltog ytterligare en marinenhet med 3 officerare och 60 värvade män med 10 landningsbåtar av typen 36 'LCP i grundläggande utbildning av personal från Royal Australian Navy i hantering av landningsbåtar.

(c) I Camp DOOMBEN, Queensland, i närheten av Brisbane fanns 21 officerare och 250 värvade män som hade utbildats i

drift av landningsbåtar och som väntade på att landningsbåtar skulle komma från USA. Denna personal överfördes senare till Amfibieträningskommandot vid Port Stephens när kommandot upprättades.

(d) Royal Australian Navy hade en amfibisk träningsbas vid Port Stephens, känd som HMAS Assault. Den 25 februari 1943 beordrade Australian Commonwealth Naval Board att HMAS Assault och även Australian Landing Ship Infantry HMAS Manoora läggas under operativ kontroll av befälhavaren Southwest Pacific Amphibious Force. HMAS Kanimbla och Westralia, skulle ytterligare två LSI tilldelas på samma sätt så snart deras omvandlingar hade slutförts.

Amfibieträning i Australien

Inledande operationer

Den 1 mars 1943 kombinerades alla Joint Operational Overseas Training School, HMAS Assault och U.S. Advanced Base Unit för att bilda Amphibious Training Command under tillfälligt kommando av kapten K. J. CHRISTOPH, USN. Han lättades månaden efter av kapten J. W. JAMISON, USN som hade stor erfarenhet av amfibieträning i Atlanten och som hade tjänstgjort som Beachmaster under de nordafrikanska landningarna.

Den sjunde divisionen, Australian Imperial Forces var de första trupperna som var planerade för amfibisk träning. Som förberedelse för den stora utbildningen genomfördes särskild utbildning för utvalda officerare i divisionen. Ämnen som behandlades var strand- och strandfester, kommunikation, stöd för sjöskott, flygstöd, amfibisk scouting och transportkvartermästares uppgifter. Sextio fyra officerare deltog i dessa kurser.

Den sjunde divisionen kunde inte träffa sitt datum för trupputbildning på grund av svårigheter med att organisera sig, brist på ersättare och det stora antalet personal som lider av återkommande malaria. Det uppskattades att divisionen inte skulle vara redo att börja träna förrän i slutet av april.

Befälhavaren Southwest Pacific Amphibious Force rekommenderade att First Marine Division, sedan i

i närheten av Melbourne, görs tillgänglig för utbildning. Detta godkändes och utbildning av denna division genomfördes i Dromana Beach Area, Port Phillip, Victoria, från 28 mars till 15 maj. Under denna period observerade officerare i sjunde australiensiska divisionen marines utbildning, men ingen trupputbildning gavs denna division.

HMAS Manoora och USS Henry T. Allen användes ursprungligen för amfibisk utbildning av First Marine Division. H.T. Allen hade anlänt till området den 13 mars från södra Stilla havet. Det materiella tillståndet för detta fartyg var sådant att det måste avbrytas från träningen den 10 april under en fem veckors översynstillgänglighet i Sydney. Det var planerat att LST, LCI och LCT när de blev tillgängliga i området skulle delta i denna utbildning med början den 15 april. Sådana farkoster krävdes dock för att flytta fram trupperna så snart de anlände. Endast Manoora förblev tillgängliga för träning och inledde ett bataljonlandningslag i taget.

Träningsmönster

Medan repetitionsutbildningen av First Marine Division pågick i Port Phillip, förbereddes träningstrupperna vid Port Stephens. Standardoperationsprocedurer utvecklades för Shore Parties, Naval Gunfire Support and Air Support, Landing Force Communications, Transport Quartermasters och Combat Loading, Conduct of Troops on Amphibious Ships and Craft, Technique of the Soldier in Debarking from Amphibious Ships and Craft.

32: e infanteridivisionen var den första enheten som deltog i Amphibious Training Center. Instruktionsmetoden visade sig vara framgångsrik och antogs som ett mönster för all framtida utbildning. En personal- och kommandokurs, specialistkurs och kurs för truppinstruktörer gavs före utbildning av truppförband.

Officerare som deltog i personal- och kommandokurser var division- eller assisterande divisionsbefälhavare, underrättelse-, operations- och logistikofficerdivision, avdelning för ingenjörsavdelning för regiment- och bataljonstabsdivisioner och regimentskirurger och bataljonschefer.

Den första veckan av stabs- och kommandokursen bestod av

föreläsningar, diskussioner och demonstrationer som täcker alla faser av amfibieoperationer. Den andra veckan ägnades åt ett skolproblem som krävde att eleverna utarbetade planer, fältorder och administrativa order för en landning av ett regimentskamplag. RCT och BLT Staffs arbetade som grupper för att lösa detta problem.

Specialistskolan var indelad i sektioner. Kommunikation med divisions-, regements- och bataljonkommunikationsofficer Naval Gunfire Stöd av framåtriktade observatörer, sambandofficerare och S-3: or av Field Artillery Battalions Shore Party av utvalda officerare i ingenjörsbataljonen, Pioneer Platons och infanteri enheter Transportkvartermästarsektion som deltog av två officerare från varje bataljonmedicin efter division, regements- och bataljonkirurger.

Studenter på Specialistskolan deltog i de första veckans föreläsningar och diskussioner om Command and Staff Course som var av allmänt intresse för alla. Resten av perioden på två veckor spenderades på den speciella specialiteten med föreläsningar, diskussioner, skolproblem och praktiskt arbete.

Assisterande trupp-instruktörsskolan hölls för varje RCT en vecka innan planerad trupputbildning för den enheten. Det deltog en och en halv officer underofficerare från varje företag, batteri eller liknande enhet. Syftet med denna kurs var att ge personal som är kvalificerad att instruera och korrigera den enskilda soldaten under truppträning och därför betonad teknik för ombordstigning, avstigning, individuell procedur ombord på transporter, bärning av utrustning etc.

Tjänstemän deltog i personal- och kommando- och specialskolorna med tillfällig tjänstgöring. Under trupputbildningen behöll alla befälhavande officerare kommandot över sina enheter. Amphibious Training Center publicerade utbildningsschemat och truppkommanderarna utförde det. Instruktörer fungerade som handledare för utbildning och rådgivare till befälhavarna ■: d enheter som genomgår utbildning.

I maj 1943 överlämnades Combined Operations Training School i Toorbul, Queensland till Commander Seventh Amphibious Force. Denna skola hade drivits av 1: a australiensiska armén och hade tränat separata infanteribataljoner, luftvärnsgrupper och pansarbrigader.

Amphibious Training Center, Cairns, Queensland var

etablerad den 25 juni 1943. Kapten P. A. STEVENS, USN, tidigare befälhavare för USS Henry T. Allen, tilldelades som befälhavare. Den andra ingenjörens specialbrigad bestående av amfibieutbildade arméstyrkor, var belägen i Cairns och placerades under operativ kontroll av befälhavare sjunde amfibiska styrkan för användning vid utbildning av den sjätte och nionde australiensiska divisionen.

Enheter utbildade

Följande är utbildningen som amfibierna i Australien under 1943 genomförde:

Enhet ATC Inklusive datum
32: e amerikanska inf. Div
Personal & amp Command & amp Specialists School Port Stephens 31 maj-14 juni
Truppträning Port Stephens 16 juni-28 augusti
Första amerikanska Cav. Div
Personal & amp Kommando & amp; Specialistskolor Port Stephens 2-16 augusti
Truppträning
1: a brigaden Port Stephens 13 september-4 oktober
2: a brigaden Toorbul 13 september-4 oktober
9: e australiensiska div.
Truppträning Cairns 1 juli-10 augusti
6: e australiensiska div.
Truppträning Cairns 16 augusti-18 september
24: e amerikanska inf. Div.
Personal & amp Command & amp Specialistskola Port Stephens 15-30 september
Truppträning Toorbul 5 okt.-11 dec.

Enhet ATC Inklusive datum
41: e amerikanska inf. Div.
Personal & amp Command & amp Specialistskola Toorbul 6-18 dec.
Truppträning Toorbul 20 dec.-29 jan.

Fartyg och amp Craft tillgängligt

Under hela denna period var träningen svårt handikappad av bristen på utrustning och särskilt av bristen på nödvändigt antal fartyg och landningsbåtar. Högst fyra transporter (1 APA och 3 LSI) fanns tillgängliga samtidigt. Medan träning pågick i Port Stephens, Toorbul och Cairns var samtidigt bara två transporter tillgängliga de andra två (Henry T. Allen och Westralia) lyfte trupper från Australien till Nya Guinea som förberedelse för kommande operationer. I genomsnitt en LST, fyra LCI, 3 LCT, 40 LCV och 8 LCM var tillgängliga på var och en av centren under utbildningsperioden. På grund av denna brist på utrustning måste improvisation göras. Ibland riggades LST: er med avbarkningsnät och användes som transporter, med lika mycket som ett bataljonlandningsteam ombord. Fartygssidor byggdes över vattnet och trupper avbarkade över dessa till landningsbåtar, vilket simulerade avstigning från transporter.

Strandfester

Även om ingenjörsspecialbrigader anlände till denna teater, krävdes de för omedelbar operativ användning och var inte tillgängliga som strandpartier under utbildning av flera divisioner. Som ett resultat gav General Headquarters uppdraget att de berörda divisionerna organiserade strandpartier för användning i utbildning. Denna situation var inte önskvärd men den gjorde vissa enheter medvetna om Shore Party -problemet. Å andra sidan tog de flesta trupper inte Shore Party -utbildningen på allvar, eftersom man allmänt trodde att Engineer Special Brigade -enheter skulle tillhandahållas för operationer mot fienden. De flesta avdelningarna kunde inte heller få tillräcklig och tillräcklig mekanisk utrustning för korrekt Shore Party, dvs bulldozers, kranar, lastbilar, släpvagnar etc.

Naval Gunfire Support

På grund av bristen på stridsfartyg under denna period hade officerare som undervisades i marint skottstöd få möjligheter till praktiska övningar med sådana fartyg.

Sjukdom

Under deras träningsperioder låg den första marindivisionen, den 32: e amerikanska infanteridivisionen och den sjätte och nionde australiska divisionen så mycket som 30% under styrkan på grund av återkommande malaria bland trupperna.

Amfibieträning, Nya Guinea -området

> Huvudkontoret. Southwest Pacific Area den 11 januari 1944 beordrade att utbildningen vid ATC TOORBUL skulle avbrytas senast den 5 februari 1944 efter utbildning av 41: e infanteridivisionen och att personal, utrustning och journaler skulle flyttas till ATC, MILNE BAY, NEW GUINEA. Detta direktiv följdes av ATC vid MILNE BAY togs i drift den 26 januari 1944 och de återstående anläggningarna vid TOORBUL överlämnades till Asutralian Army.

Amphibious Training Center, Milne Bay, etablerat vid stranden av Stringer Bay, bestod av en båtpool, reparationsverkstäder, rum för tilldelad personal, en stor föreläsningssal (40 '& times 100' quonset hydda) och sju små klassrum (2o ' & times 40 'quonset hydda) med en mock-up skeppssida byggd ut över vattnet och riggad med avstigningsnät. Detta var samma typ av installation som användes vid centren i Australien förutom att kvarter eller rörafaciliteter inte var tillgängliga för studenter eftersom det var förväntat att enheter som utbildats vid detta center skulle arrangeras i Milne Bay -området och skulle kunna pendla till ATC från deras läger.

Utbildningskurs

Utbildningskursen vid ATC Milne Bay följde samma mönster som användes vid Centers in Australia Staff and Command and Specialists School, Assistant Troop Instructors Course, och slutligen, Troop Training.

Den sjätte amerikanska infanteridivisionen gick in i utbildningstiden den 28 februari 1944. Förutom de vanliga officerarna* skolorna

under de två första veckorna skulle varje RCT ha tre veckors utbildning med hjälp av transporter, LCI och LST. Men den 8 april måste träningen avbrytas eftersom alla tillgängliga transporter och större landningsbåtar av typen krävdes för den kommande Aitape-Humboldt Bay-Tanamerah-operationen.

Eftersom träningen skulle stanna tills de första faserna av denna operation slutfördes, var ATC -instruktörer detaljerade som observatörer med olika delar av arbetsgruppen och landningsstyrkan. Detta drag var särskilt värdefullt för instruktörer eftersom det gav dem en möjlighet att observera två divisioner, den 24: e och 41: e, i deras första amfibieoperation sedan de avslutade utbildningen vid ATC Toorbul.

ATC Milne Bay återupptog utbildningen av den 6: e amerikanska infanteridivisionen den 1 maj och avslutade arbetet med den divisionen den 5 juni 1944.

Mobila träningsenheter

Som ett resultat av landningarna i Aitape-Hollandia-Tanamerah Bay blev Milne Bay en plats bakom området och det var uppenbart att inga andra stridstrupper skulle ställa upp därifrån. Transportsvårigheter förhindrade förflyttning av trupper till Milne Bay för utbildning. Det beslutades därför att organisera mobila träningsenheter som bildligt skulle ta utbildningscentret till trupperna. Tre sådana enheter bildades, var och en som kunde träna en division. Dessa enheter bestod av officerare, transporter och landningsbåtar som var tillgängliga för centret. Since the 33rd U.S. Infantry Division was the only one on the training program which had had no previous amphibious work, officers of this organization attended the last Staff and Command and Specialists Course held at Milne Bay during the period 5-17 June 1944. Troop training for the 33rd was carried out at its staging area, Finschhafen.

The remaining divisions on the program were given refresher training only, since they had all had basic amphibious work and had been in at least one amphibious operation. The following chart shows organization of the Amphibious Training Group based on the use of Mobile Training Units:

Units Trained

Following is a list of the units trained by the Amphibious Training Group, Seventh Amphibious Force, during the New Guinea Phase:

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
6th U.S. Inf. Div.
Staff & Specialist School Milne Bay 28 Feb--11 Mar 1944
Troop Training Milne Bay 13 Mar.-8 Apr. & 1 May-5 June
33rd U.S. Inf. Div.
Staff & Specialist School Milne Bay 5-17 June 1944
Troop Training Finschhafen 26 June-29 July 1944

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
6th U.S. Ranger Bn.
Troop Training Finschhafen 17--29 July 1944
37th U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Bougainville 13 July-24 Aug 1944
43rd U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Aitape 28 Aug-26 Sept 1944
31st, 33rd, 43rd Divs' Arty. 120th, 126th, 129th F.A. Bns.
Naval Gunfire Support Aitape 12-20 August 1944
112th U.S. Cav. RCT Aitape 28 Sept-12 Oct 1944
25th U.S. Inf. Div.
New Troop Training New Caledonia 8 Sept.-13 Oct 1944
7th Australian Div.
Troop Training Cairns, Aust. 14 Oct.-14 Nov. 1944
40th U.S. Inf. Div.
Troop Training Cape Gloucester 15 Oct.-18 Nov. 1944
9th Australian Div.
Troop Training Cairns, Aust. 17 Nov.-2 Dec. 1944

Ships and Craft Used

An average of 2 APA (LSI), 2 LST, 4 LCIs were available to each training unit during this period.

On 2 October 1944, six British LSIs reported to Commander

Seventh Amphibious Force and were assigned to the Amphibious Training Group for duty. These were HMS Clan LaMont, Glen Earn, Empire Mace, Empire Spearhead, Empire Arquebus, Empire Battleaxe. These ships were not satisfactory, but no other were available since other transports under control of Commander Seventh Amphibious Force were engaged in combat operations.

The LSIs carried only the British LCA (landing craft assault) which were personnel boats only, similar to the LCP(R). Davits could not take the LCVP without extensive conversion. The Amphibious Training Group issued two LCM(3)s to each ship. In addition, these ships had limited troop and cargo capacity-- about 800 troops, eight 2-½ ton trucks and 20 1/4 ton trucks. Cleanliness and sanitation were not up to the standards maintained by ships of the United States Navy.

All LVTs and DUKWs in the Southwest Pacific Area were either in use on operations or being assembled in staging areas for future operations. None were available for training.

Shore Parties

As in previous training, the units involved were required to form Shore Parties from organic elements of the division. Again, the lack of mechanical equipment and sufficient engineer troops hampered complete and efficient Shore Party training. The most common source of Shore Party personnel was from one of the regiments not in training. This assignment was rotated among the three regiments of the division.

Naval Gunfire Training

During the period 12-20 August, 1944, forward observers of the 31st, 33rd, and 43rd U.S. Infantry Divisions and 120th, 126th, and 129th Field Artillery Battalions received training at Aitape with a destroyer division furnishing gunfire. Training was coordinated with combat missions of the 43rd Infantry Division operating in the Aitape sector. In this manner forward observers not only gained experience in working with firing ships, but found "live" targets and performed under combat conditions.

Philippine Phase

Establishment of ATC Subic

During the period of the Leyte and Lingayen operations, troop training was at a standstill since nearly all combat units were being employed in the Philippine Campaign. However, it was deemed essential to commence refresher amphibious training as early as practicable in preparation for the eventual invasion of Japan. Several areas along the Coast of Luzon, Philippine Islands, were reconnoitered and Subic Bay, Zambales Province was finally selected as the site for an Amphibious Training Center in the Philippines.

In early March 1945, General Headquarters directed that the ATC, Milne Bay, be transferred to Subic Bay and that preparations be made to train three Divisions simultaneously. Because most Army units would have a considerable number of officer replacements since their last amphibious operation, it was directed that a Staff and Command Course and Specialists School for officers be conducted prior to troop training of each division. The organization for this training was to be along the same lines as that used during the training in New Guinea--officer schools at the Center and troop training in the staging areas conducted by Mobile Training Units.

In early April 1945 the Amphibious Training Center, Subic Bay, was placed high on the construction priority list so that the first course could start by 12 June 1945. The completed installations at Subic Bay included facilities for the Amphibious Training Base, Headquarters Amphibious Training Group, lecture halls and class rooms for the Staff and Command and Specialists Schools, and quarters and mess for 300 officers.

Staff andn Command and Specialists Courses

In accordance with General Headquarters* directive, a two-weeks Staff and Command and Specialists School proceeded all troop training. Increased emphasis was placed on such subjects as air support, naval gunfire support, and communications. As soon as it was known that JASCOs (Joint Assault Signal Company) would be assigned certain division s for training, a Specialists School for the Air Liaison and Shore Fire Control Sections of these units was initiated. The JASCO Shore Party Communications Sections were to receive instruction and training with the Shore Parties.

Since the Seventh Amphibious Force was to be transferred

to the control of Amphibious Forces Pacific on 15 August 1945, "Transport Doctrine, Amphibious Force Pacific Fleet" was used as a basis for all instruction. While this required some changes in technique, the basic doctrine was the same as previously taught in the Southwest Pacific Area.

Troops Training

Troop training was accomplished by sending Mobile Training Units to the divisions concerned rather than attempting to transport all divisions to Subic Bay. Training Units were organized in the same manner as those used in New Guinea and had in addition one transport division of four APAs and one AKA. The transport division commander was also the commanding officer of the Mobile Training Unit.

Because of the limited time for training, it was necessary to handle up to three divisions at once. Again the transports and landing craft had to be split three ways. The shipping allocated each training unit was only sufficient to lift one RCT. Thus exercises involving the embarkation and landing of an entire Army division could not be accomplished.

Units to be Trained

Following is a list of the units scheduled for training, including dates and location of training:

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
81st and Americal U.S. Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 15-24 June
Troop Training Leyte Cebu 1-23 July
1st U.S. Cav, 40th, 33rd, Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 13--22 July
Troop Training Lucena, Luzon
Iloilo, Panay
Launion, Luzon
30 July-21 Aug.

Unit Place Inclusive Dates
24th, 41st, 43rd U.S. Inf. Divs.
Command & Staff & Specialists Subic 11-20 Aug.
Troop Training Lingayen, Luzon
Zamboanga, Mindanao
28 Aug.-19 Sept.

ATC Organization

On 10 June 1945, Rear Admiral J. L. HALL, Jr., USN, Commander Amphibious Group 12, reported to Commander Seventh Amphibious Force for duty as Commander Amphibious Training Group. He succeeded Captain R. E. HANSON, USN, who had commanded the group since July 1944. Captain Hanson then became Commanding Officer of the Amphibious Training Center, Subic Bay and Commodore J. B. McGovern, USN, who had reported with Transport Squadron 16, was placed in charge of troop training.

The following diagram illustrates the Amphibious Training Group Organization:


Cancellation of Training

The cessation of hostilities brought about the cancellation of all amphibious training since the troop units concerned were required for the occupation of Japan and Korea. At this time the 81st and Americal Divisions had completed their course of training the 1st Cavalry, 40th and 33rd Infantry Divisions had finished the Command and Staff and Specialists Schools and were midway in their troop training, and officers of the 25th, 41st, and 43rd divisions had started the Command and Staff and Specialists School.

At its end the Amphibious Training Group was embarked on one of the most extensive amphibious training programs of the war initially the training of eight army divisions for the assault on Kyushu and later the same program for ten divisions for operations against Honshu.


Vice Admiral BARBEY with Rear Admiral ARTHUR D. STRUBLE, U. S. Navy (left), Commander Amphibious Group Nine and Rear Admiral WILLIAM M. FECHTELER, U. S. Navy (right), Commander Amphibious Group Eight.


When WW2 Ended Where Did all the 100’s of Millions of Weapons Go?

World War II ended 74 years ago – so what happened to the hundreds of millions of weapons that were made for it?

World War II was like no other war: it was warfare on an epic and global scale.

War Production 1939 to 1945 (estimated)

Major weapons groups & System Total

  • Tanks, self-propelled artillery, vehicles: 6 million
  • Artillery, mortars, anti-tank guns: 8 million
  • Aircraft: 850,000
  • Missiles: 45,000
  • Ships: 55,500

What probably set this war apart from other conflicts was the rapid pace at which technology progressed throughout it.

For instance, at the start of the war, most sides were using prop-driven fighter aircraft such as the French De.520 monoplane.

But by the end of the conflict, aircraft such as the jet-powered German Me 262 and British Gloster Meteor were entering service and becoming the norm, thus hailing in the postwar dominance of jet propulsion in air warfare.

Messerschmitt Me 262 B1-A.Photo gravitat-OFF CC BY 2.0

Dewoitine De.520 C.1 compared to the Me 262 A-1a [Percentage Increase]

Maximum speed: 347 mph (560 km/h) 559 mph (900 km/h ) +61%

Rate of climb: 2,820 ft/min (853 m/min) 3,900 ft/min (1,200 m/min ) +38%

Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,000 m) 37,565 ft (11,450 m ) +14%

Range: 777 mi (1,250 km) 652 mi (1,050 km) -16%

Dewoitine D.520. Photo: PpPachy / CC BY-SA 3.0

What actually happened to all this weaponry after the war? Well, the answer is not as straightforward as you might think.

Many of the new types of weaponry which appeared during the war were produced to meet varying needs and specifications. Because they’d been built to such specialist requirements, they rapidly became outdated. This resulted in a huge amount of equipment being scrapped when the fighting was done.

German equipment destroyed in the Mont Ormel area, waiting to be scrapped near the Dives River-Valley

Many vehicles, aircraft, and ships were sold for scrap, being stripped of valuable parts and being melted down as metals like aluminum could be re-used.

The numbers involved were truly staggering. Between 1945 to 1946, around 5,500 aircraft were scrapped at Kingman Air Force Base in Arizona alone.

Acres of World War II aircraft in storage, awaiting their fate at Kingman, 1946.

In Germany, the scale of the scrapping was on a similar if not a more intense scale as the ravaged economy was in desperate need of raw materials.

German military aircraft in the yard of a German aluminum works at Grevenbrioch. The wrecked planes will be broken up for scrap.

In addition, a lot of the Allied weaponry was scattered around the world and it was simply too expensive to ship it all home.

A 1943 Willys Jeep, the basis for the design of jeepneys. Photo: Joost J. Bakker / CC BY 2.0

Such a large number of American Jeeps were left behind in the Philippines that a whole new type of public transport was created by converting them into small buses called ‘Jeepneys.’

A typical jeepney. Photo: Lawrence Ruiz – CC BY-SA 4.0

In the case of Libya and Tunisia, there were so many military vehicles left abandoned on the battlefield that recovering them as scrap actually helped the economies of these countries to recover after the war.

Most often, a lot of the equipment used in battle had been destroyed beyond repair. Ships and aircraft were particularly prone to this. A ship sinking a thousand feet to the seabed or an aircraft crashing into the ground at 400 miles per hour was normally completely useless.

De HMS Ark Royal, a British Aircraft Carrier, was torpedoed off Gibraltar by the Germans in 1941. It now rests on the seabed at a depth of around 3,300 ft (1,000 meters).

Legion moving alongside the damaged and listing Ark Royal to take off survivors

Tanks were a different matter altogether. They could often be recovered from the battlefield, repaired and put back into service quickly. However, by the end of the war, most of these tanks were thoroughly worn out and nearly unserviceable.

M25 Tank Transporter Dragon Wagon.

There was also a common problem in that production of many World War II designs had stopped years ago. So vehicles, ships, and aircraft were either getting too old to be adequately maintained, or were no longer effective in a fast-evolving battlefield.

Type 3 Chi-Nu tanks of the 4th Tank Division, with a few Type 3 Ho-Ni III self-propelled guns among them.

This was particularly true of the German and Japanese equipment, as most of their production capability and infrastructure had been destroyed by the mass bombing campaigns of World War II. This rendered most of their military equipment impractical to use after the war.

German Heinkel He 111 planes bombing Warsaw, Sep 1939.

At the end of the war, most German aircraft had been destroyed, were in a bad state of repair, or had been deliberately disabled by their crew. There was also a reluctance by countries to use Axis equipment as such weapons were seen as former tools of oppression and hatred.

Despite that, there were instances where Axis equipment was used out of necessity or desperation. The French used a number of German Panther tanks from the end of the war until 1949, at which point the much delayed (and ultimately very unsuccessful) home-produced ARL-44 heavy tank replaced them.

ARL 44 at Mourmelon-le-Grand. By The shadock – CC BY-SA 3.0

The Lebanese brought a handful of Italian SM 79 medium bombers due to their ties with Italy and the fact they were inexpensive to buy after the war. But the aircraft quickly fell into disuse as they were old and poorly maintained.

The Sturmgewehr 44 Assault rifle was a ground-breaking German design. It arose out of a war-time need for an infantry rifle that was more compact, semi-automatic, and with a large magazine capacity at the expense of a lesser range. The weapon later went on to have a significant influence on the development of the Russian AK-47 assault rifle.

The Sturmgewehr 44 Assault rifle. A soldier demonstrates the transitional MP 43/1 variant. By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Few survived the war as only a limited number were made and the 7.92×33mm caliber made it impractical for widespread post-war military service. But it was used for a number of years afterward by the East German Paramilitary Police.

The STG 44 was also used by the East German Paramilitary Police Force until 1962. However, such uses of Axis weaponry was the exception rather than the rule.

Often the method to prolong the use of World War II munitions was to upgrade them so that they remained relevant and effective.

/>MP44 (Sturmgewehr 44), Germany.

Many armored fighting vehicles proved to have very adaptable designs. They were often modified or upgraded to give them a second life and extend their usefulness.

This trend started during World War II, and a good example was the Czech-supplied Panzer 38(t) which was later rebuilt and turned into the German Tank Destroyer Marder III. The modifications extended its useful service life for another few years although, like many designs, the Marder III had reached the limit of its potential by the end of World War II.

Marder III Ausf. M tank destroyer.Photo: Bundesarchiv, Bild 101I-297-1729-23 / Kurth / CC-BY-SA 3.0

A precedent had been set, and some weaponry proved to have such great potential that it was continually upgraded, often reaching the pinnacle of its design potential long after the war years.

A prime example of this was the American M4 Sherman tank, which was still being upgraded decades after it was first produced.

Sherman M4A1(76). Photo: Baku 13 / CC By-SA 3.0

Even as late as the early 1960s the tank was being modified by the Israelis, who upgraded 180 surplus American Sherman M4A1s. They added a shortened version of the powerful French 105 mm F1 gun, as well as giving it a new, improved suspension and engine.

Sherman M-51. Photo: Bukvoed / CC BY 2.5

The new tank was given the designation M-51 and nicknamed the “Super Sherman.” It proved highly effective against the more modern Soviet-built T-54, T-55, and T-62 tanks the Arab army was using.

The M-51 was eventually phased out of Israeli service in the 1980s. They sold 100 to the Chilean army who used them until 1999 when they were replaced by Leopard 1s.

Some designs were so good and well made that they soldiered on for years to come with few, if any, modifications. The classic Russian T-34/85 medium tank and the F-4U Corsair naval fighter airplane fell into this category.

The F-4U Corsair was still being produced for years after the war, with production only ending in 1953. After that, the aircraft was slowly phased out of military service until 1976 when the El Salvador Air Force completely replaced it.

Vought F4U Corsair. Photo: Gerry Metzler / CC BY-SA 2.0

As ships were both costly and time-consuming to build, as well as being very labor intensive to run, many were disregarded after the war. However, some ships, like the USS Iowa, were maintained.

De Iowa was a 58,400 ton American Battleship which was continually updated and kept in service on and off until 1990 before entering the naval reserve and, eventually, in 2011, becoming an official Museum ship.

USS Missouri leading USS Iowa into Tokyo Bay, Japan, 30 August 1945. Note destroyer USS Nicholas in escort.

Very few military boats were sold to private individuals, but it is interesting to note that actor, John Wayne, bought a former World War II American YMS-1-class. It was a 136 ft long Yard Mine Sweeper and he ran it for the last 17 years of his life.

It was said that the ship was so expensive to run that it nearly bankrupted him several times and he had to take on extra movies to be able to pay to keep it running.

USS YMS-324 in San Francisco Bay, c. 1945–46

On the other hand, many weapons were so badly designed in the first place that they were scrapped as soon as possible and were never used post-war.

This was the case for both the German Me 163 Komet Jet Interceptor and the Italian Breda 6.5mm Model 30 light machine gun. This gun was prone to over-heating and jamming as well as having no carrying handle, a small magazine capacity, and a barrel changing issue.

A German Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet rocket-propelled fighter (s/n 191095) at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio (USA).

Some World War II surplus stock was very attractive to buy as it was in plentiful supply and the designs were combat proven. Such stock had the added bonus of being readily available and often at very affordable prices. For instance, a lot of third world countries bought World War II aircraft like the American P-51 Mustang for counter-insurgency duties.

North American P-51 Mustang of 354th Fighter Group D-Day 1944.

Such surplus stock could even be cannibalized for spare parts to keep a weapon that was out of production running for years.

A lot of small arms were so robustly built for the demanding environment of the battlefields that they were able to be kept in use for a very long time. They also proved popular on the civilian market because they often were extremely simple to operate – they were designed to be so because mostly they were used by conscripts or poorly trained troops.

Mustang P-51H

As such, a lot of the small arms from World War II had long military careers after the war. The American M3 sub-machine gun was used until recently by the Philippine Army, and the British Bren light machine gun was only finally phased out of service from the Irish Army Reserves in 2006.

Philippine Naval Special Warfare Group members. Two of them are armed with M3.

Some weapons are just so well designed or eminently suitable for updating that they have stayed in service up to the present day. The M1 Garand rifle and the Colt M1911A1 automatic handgun are two excellent examples.

One firearm which provided itself to be exceptional was the American M1 Garand .30 caliber semi-automatic rifle.

World War II Infantryman, kneeling in front of M3 Half-track, holds and sights an M1 Garand rifle. Fort Knox, Kentucky, June 1942.

After the war, it found a new market, at first in its original form before continuing in front-line service after being modified to become the M14 rifle 7.62 mm, selective fire automatic rifle. This gun stayed in the American Army and Marine Corp service until 1964, when it began to be replaced by the M-16 5.56mm automatic rifle.

A U.S. soldier with an M14 watches as supplies are dropped in 1967 during the Vietnam War.

World War II second-hand small arms were popular for decades. It is a sad fact that the weapon used by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963 to kill the American President, JFK, was a war surplus Italian Carcano Model 91/38 rifle, that he had bought by mail order for just $12.98 ($107 in 2018 value).

Some of the ex-military equipment of World War II was put to more unusual but still practical use. For instance, since 1964, the now world famous Reno Air Races in Nevada, United States, has included a category called “Unlimited Gold” which is solely for World War II aircraft.

Hawker Sea Fury. September Fury at the Reno races. Photo: Calyponte / CC BY-SA 3.0

The 2018 winner of this class was a British TMK 20 Sea Fury which had a course average speed of 418 mph (over 673 kph). Other participants were F-8F Bearcats and P-51D Mustangs.

Some military vehicles were converted to agricultural use. This was particularly the case in Australia. The turrets were taken off British Matilda tanks and bulldozer blades were added, while Sherman tanks were used to help plow fields.

British Matilda II tank.

While many aircraft found new leases of life well into the 1950s and 60s as trainers, target tugs, or transporters, the American DC3 Dakota military transporter is still used today as a cargo carrier in some South American countries.

A 1944 Douglas DC-3C (2015). Photo: Bubba73 (Jud McCranie) / CC BY-SA 4.0

The Canadian naval World War II cargo ship, the Cromwell Park, was subsequently used to create an artificial reef in Rivera Beach, Florida. The ship had been sold for commercial shipping in 1946 and renamed the Harmac Vancouver. Later, it was sold on again, this time to a Greek company where it was renamed Amaryllis.

In 1965, the ship was trying to take shelter from a hurricane when it ran aground on the East Coast of Florida in the United States. In 1968, the ship was towed to a spot that was 85 feet (almost 26 meters) deep and sunk to make a permanent artificial reef.

An M22 Locust, American light tank at Bovington Tank Museum in the UK.

Many vehicles, ships, and aircraft have now been placed into museums for preservation, while others have been set up as memorials across the world to remember — as well as celebrate — man’s bravery and foolhardiness in pursuing the glory of war.

The fact that, over 70 years later, these weapons are still around is a testimony to their enduring design and ingenuity.


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Mark Clark

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Mark Clark, in full Mark Wayne Clark, (born May 1, 1896, Madison Barracks, N.Y., U.S.—died April 17, 1984, Charleston, S.C.), U.S. Army officer during World War II, who commanded Allied forces (1943–44) during the successful Italian campaign against the Axis powers.

A graduate (1917) of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., Clark served overseas in World War I. Early in 1942 he became chief of staff of army ground forces. Later that year, as deputy commander in chief to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, he executed delicate and demanding assignments in connection with the Allied invasion of North Africa, including a dramatic submarine trip to Algeria for a secret meeting with French officers.

Clark’s responsibilities were considerably enlarged when he was appointed commander of the American 5th Army, which effected a major landing at Salerno (September 1943) aimed at wresting the Italian peninsula from Axis control. Clark received the surrender of the Italian fleet and the government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio the same month his march into Rome (June 4, 1944) marked the fall of the first enemy capital. In December he was appointed commander of the 15th Army Group and finally received the surrender of the stubborn German forces in the north of Italy on May 2, 1945.


Lark II YMS-76 - History

The rakish 1963-64 Studebaker Avanti was among the most daring 1960s American cars, a modern masterpiece with totally unique American styling that even top exotic Italian auto stylists wouldn't attempt to do.

The Avanti had advanced safety features, when no U.S. automaker particularly gave a darn about safety. Such features included a built-in roll bar, padded interior and door latches that became structural body members when closed.

Performance? An Avanti with a supercharged V-8 was one of the fastest 1960s autos. A supercharged model hit 168 mph, while a modified version reached 196 mph--a staggering speed for a 1960s production street car. Some 29 Bonneville speed records were smashed by a supercharged Avanti.

Safety? The Avanti (Italian for "forward") was the first mass-produced fiberglass-body four-passenger American car. It also was the first such car to use caliper-style disc brakes.

Sexy? James Bond author Ian Fleming ordered a black Avanti and shipped it to foreign countries he visited outside his native England. Ricky Nelson, the second most popular (behind Elvis) rock and roll singer of the late 1950s and early 1960s, also owned an Avanti (which I drove one evening in the 1980s because it was for sale at a Ft. Lauderdale exotic car dealer). In short, the Avanti was a modern masterpiece. Too bad it didn't last long enough to help the veteran Studebaker Corp. from failing in the United States in late 1963.

Studebaker was more than 100 years old when the Avanti debuted. It began making horse-drawn wagons in 1862 and produced its first cars--electric models--in 1902. But "Stude" was in deep trouble by the mid-1950s. It lacked the economy of scale of larger U.S. automakers and thus its cars, although good, weren't cost-competitive against giants such as General Motors.

However, Studebaker survived the 1950s by producing compact economy Lark models, which sold well in the depressed economy late in that decade, along with some sporty Hawk models, such as the now-classic 1956-58 Golden Hawk.

But then the prosperous 1960s arrived, and Studebaker again had to offer winners from its South Bend, Indiana, headquarters and plants because Lark volume fell by more than half for 1961.

Hard-charging young Sherwood Egbert arrived as Studebaker's new president in 1961 and quickly had Lark and Hawk styling updated on a crash basis by noted Milwaukee-based designer Brooks Stevens.

Stevens did the best he could while dealing with Studebaker's dated cars and engines, and Egbert felt Studebaker needed a dramatic new car. It had to really grab the public's attention to help generate much-needed sales and to rejuvenate the automaker's rather staid image.

Egbert's star car was the Avanti. With Stevens updating higher-volume models, Egbert recruited flamboyant Raymond Loewy, a world-famous industrial designer who had considerable auto design experience. Loewy had come up with the startling, slick 1953 Studebaker coupe--arguably the best-styled American car of the 1950s.

Given a rough idea of what Egbert wanted the new car to look like, Loewy had the Avanti's styling done under his supervision by his hand-picked team of young Tom Kellogg and seasoned Bob Andrews and John Ebstein.

To avoid distractions and interference from Studebaker executives, Loewy sequestered his highly talented team in a rented desert ranch house near Palm Springs, Calif.. The team knew the car was urgent business, so they worked 16 hours daily for weeks.

Loewy gave his men instructions that established the Avanti's design theme, such as "Coke-shape a must" and "wedgy silhouette." In fact, GM's most famous styling chiefs worked the same way, initially giving general directions and then specific instructions.

However, Loewy personally designed the Avanti's wheel openings, which had a shape similar to the flight trajectory of the sensational Russian Sputnik space satellite. He knew Egberrt loved flying, so the Avanti got an aircraft-style cockpit.

The Loewy group gathered in Palm Springs on March 19, 1961. It rapidly developed a clay scale model of the Avanti, which Loewy rushed to Studebakr's headquarters. Egbert wasn't a "car guy," but knew a winner when he saw one. He was delighted with the car, and Studebaker's board approved its construction just five weeks after Loewy's team began work on it. No major American automaker had ever done a car so quickly.

The Avanti had a coke-bottle "waist" and thin-section roof with an extra-large rear window and the built-in roll bar. Razor-edged front fenders swept back into the curved rear end and into a jacked-up tail.

The front had no conventional grille--just an air scoop below a thin bumper. The hood had an asymmetrical hump, and the interior featured aircraft-style instrumentation and controls, some placed above the windshield. Occupants sat in four slim-section bucket seats similar to those in an Alfa Romeo sports car.

No time or resources existed for wind-tunnel testing, but the Avanti nevertheless was highly aerodynamic--one reason it could hit nearly 200 mph. Loewy and his team had just guessed at the car's slippery shape.

There also was no time or money for steel body dies, so the Avanti body was made of fiberglass. The car was enormously strong, with a shortened, beefy Lark convertible frame and sport suspension with front/rear anti-sway bars and rear radius rods for superior handling.

Powering the Avanti was a modified version of Studebaker's dated but sturdy 289-cubic-inch V-8. This "Jet Thrust" engine developed 240 horsepower in standard "R1" form, with such items as a 3/4-race high-lift camshaft, dual-breaker distributor, four-barrel carburetor and dual exhausts. It developed 290 horsepower in supercharged "R2" form.

There also were a few supercharged "R3" V-8s with 335 horsepower and an experimental non-supercharged "R4" 280-horsepower V-8 with dual four-barrel carburetors. Then there was an amazing twin-supercharged, fuel-injected "R5" V-8 with magneto ignition. It produced an astounding 575 horsepower.

To Studebaker's delight, the public was crazy about the Avanti, which drew many to Studebaker showrooms. It was upscale and nicely equipped. The 1963 and 1964 models each had a $4,445 base price, when a less practical Chevrolet Corvette Sting Ray two-seat coupe cost $4,252.

But quality problems arose because Egbert rushed the car into production, knowing time was running out for Studebaker. It didn't help that production was delayed for months because Molded Fiberglass Co., which also built Corvette fiberglass body parts, botched Avanti bodies--forcing Studebaker to set up its own fiberglass production.

Many Avanti buyers canceled advance orders and bought a Corvette or other sporty cars.

Making matters worse, the word was out that Studebaker was on the ropes and might go out of business. In fact, it closed its South Bend operation in December, 1963, when the last 1964 Avanti barely left its plant.

Suffering from ill health, Egbert had left that November. Studebaker built Larks and a few other models in Canada until 1966. The Avanti 240- and 290-horsepower V-8s actually were available for some 1964 models. But Studebaker engines were gone by 1965, so two Chevy engines were offered for 1965 and 1966, when Studebaker production ceased after totaling 8,947 cars that year.

Only 3,834 Avantis were built in 1963 and just 809 were classified as 1964 models. The general rule is that the 1963 Avanti had round headlight surrounds and the 1964 model had square ones.

A fair number of Studebaker Avantis have survived because of their no-rust fiberglass body and solid construction. A 1963-64 R1 is valued at $10,800 in good condition and at $20,500 if in excellent shape, according to the Cars of Particular Interest guide. It says a supercharged 1963-64 R2 is worth $12,000 in good shape and $22,800 in excellent condition.

However, the Sports Car Market value guide puts figures for an R1 at $16,000 to $28,000 and at $20,000 to $32,000 for an R2.

The Avanti was too good to die quickly. It lasted for decades after 1963 with Chevy V-8s after being initially rescued by two successful South Bend Studebaker dealers, Nate Altman and Leo Newman.

Altman and Newman bought all rights to the car, formed Avanti Motor Corp., and continued to have it hand-built for years in an old Studebaker plant as the "Avanti II," powered by a Corvette V-8. The revived car's chief engineer was Gene Hardig, the original Avanti head engineer.

"The Avanti was too sensational for us to just let it go," Altman told me during an interview at the Avanti II factory. He was wildly enthusiastic about the Avanti and worked tirelessly for more than a decade to make it successful.

The Avanti II was nearly the same as the Studebaker version, although Altman removed the car's slight front rake, substituted the modern Corvette V-8, gave it much higher quality and let buyers choose various high-grade interior materials such as carpets.

Other individuals continued to build the car for years when Altman passed away in the mid-1970s and the Altman family sold the operation.

The Avanti still turns heads. No car has ever looked like it, and none probably ever will.


Karl Marx’s Early Life and Education

Karl Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Prussia he was the oldest surviving boy in a family of nine children. Both of his parents were Jewish, and descended from a long line of rabbis, but his father, a lawyer, converted to Lutheranism in 1816 due to contemporary laws barring Jews from higher society. Young Karl was baptized in the same church at the age of 6, but later became an atheist.

Did you know? The 1917 Russian Revolution, which overthrew three centuries of tsarist rule, had its roots in Marxist beliefs. The revolution’s leader, Vladimir Lenin, built his new proletarian government based on his interpretation of Marxist thought, turning Karl Marx into an internationally famous figure more than 30 years after his death.

After a year at the University of Bonn (during which Marx was imprisoned for drunkenness and fought a duel with another student), his worried parents enrolled their son at the University of Berlin, where he studied law and philosophy. There he was introduced to the philosophy of the late Berlin professor G.W.F. Hegel and joined a group known as the Young Hegelians, who were challenging existing institutions and ideas on all fronts, including religion, philosophy, ethics and politics.


Machine Gun

A side arm for mobile suits manufactured by Yashima Heavy Industrial. It shot real rounds, and was also used by a group of mobile suits of the Earth Federation Forces Γ] .

Heat Hawk

A hatchet-type weapon for close combat. The blade could glow red with heat that was hot enough to melt armor. The MS-05 and many other suits were also equipped with this weapon Γ] .

Shield

A defense equipment attached to the upper arm. It could protect against a machine gun, but its bulletproof performance was not as strong as the L-shaped shield of the MS-06 Γ] .

Beam Sniper Rifle

Shoulder Shields


Studebaker goes bankrupt

On this day in 1933, American automaker Studebaker, then heavily in debt, goes into receivership. The company’s president, Albert Erskine, resigned and later that year died by suicide. Studebaker eventually rebounded from its financial troubles, only to shut down the assembly line and transition out of the automobile business in 1966.

The origins of the Studebaker Corporation date back to 1852, when brothers Henry and Clement Studebaker opened a blacksmith shop in South Bend, Indiana. Studebaker eventually became a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn wagons and supplied wagons to the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Around the turn of the century, the company entered America’s burgeoning auto industry, launching an electric car in 1902 and a gas-powered vehicle two years later that was marketed under the name Studebaker-Garford. After partnering with other automakers, Studebaker began selling gas-powered cars under its own name in 1913, while continuing to make wagons until 1920.

Albert Erskine (1871�) assumed the top job at Studebaker in 1915. Under his leadership, the company acquired luxury automaker Pierce-Arrow in the late 1920s and launched the affordably priced but short-lived Erskine and Rockne lines (the latter named for the famous University of Notre Dame football coach: Before his death in a plane crash in 1931, Studebaker paid Rockne to give talks at auto conventions and dealership events). During the early 1930s, Studebaker was hit hard by the Great Depression and in March 1933 it was forced into bankruptcy. (In April 2009, Chrysler became the first major American automaker since Studebaker to declare bankruptcy.) Erskine, who was saddled with personal debt and health problems, killed himself on July 1, 1933.


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